Course lecture notes:
M. Leppäranta and Arttu Jutila: Geophysics of snow and ice (at the Moodle course page for enrolled students only)
- S. Colbeck, ed. (1980): Dynamics of snow and ice masses, Academic Press
- W. Paterson (1994): Glaciology, 4th ed., Pergamon Press
- E. Pounder (1965): Physics of ice, Pergamon Press
- M. Leppäranta (2015): Freezing lakes and the evolution of their ice cover. Springer.
- P. Wadhams (2000) Ice in the ocean. Gordon & Breach Science, Amsterdam.
The course code of conduct generally follows https://wiki.helsinki.fi/x/OK6oDQ.
Master’s Programme in Atmospheric Sciences is responsible for the course.
Module where the course belongs to:
- ATM300 Advanced Studies in Atmospheric Sciences
- Study Track in Geophysics of the Hydrosphere
The course is available to students from other degree programmes.
At the end the students have basic knowledge of physical properties of snow and ice, and they can explain the significance of snow and ice to other fields of geophysics, atmospheric sciences and climate.
Recommended time for completion is 2nd or 3rd year, no specific course requirements in advance.
The course is offered in spring term Period III (January-February).
The course covers the physics of the world's cryosphere. It begins from the structure of ice crystal and properties of Ice Ih, which is the form of ice in Earth's nature. Then different ice and snow fields are introduced: snow, glaciers and ice sheets, lake and river ice, sea ice, and ice in ground. The course also makes a two-day field exercise in Lammi biological station to learn field techniques.
- Structure and properties of Ice Ih
- Seasonal snow cover
- Glaciers and ice sheets
- Frozen ground
- Lake ice and river ice
- Sea ice
The course consists of lectures, written and field exercises. At least 1/3 of the exercises must be completed. The field exercise is can be compensated by laboratory work and report. A written exam is organised after the course.
See the courses page at https://courses.helsinki.fi/en/atm335/124982112 for details.
The course code of conduct generally follows https://wiki.helsinki.fi/x/OK6oDQ. The grade (1-5) is based on the final exam and exercises.